The Lancet 2006; 367:1997-2004

 

Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping on iron status in Mexican infants: a randomised controlled trial

Camila M Chaparro PhD ,   Lynnette M Neufeld PhD ,   Gilberto Tena Alavez MD ,   Ral Eguia-Lz Cedillo MD    and   Dr, Prof Kathryn G Dewey PhD  

Summary

Background

Delayed clamping of the umbilical cord increases the infant's iron endowment at birth and haemoglobin concentration at 2 months of age. We aimed to assess whether a 2-minute delay in the clamping of the umbilical cord of normal-weight, full-term infants improved iron and haematological status up to 6 months of age.

Methods

476 mother-infant pairs were recruited at a large obstetrics hospital in Mexico City, Mexico, randomly assigned to delayed clamping (2 min after delivery of the infant's shoulders) or early clamping (around 10 s after delivery), and followed up until 6 months postpartum. Primary outcomes were infant haematological status and iron status at 6 months of age, and analysis was by intention-to-treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00298051.

Findings

358 (75%) mother-infant pairs completed the trial. At 6 months of age, infants who had delayed clamping had significantly higher mean corpuscular volume (810 fL vs 795 fL 95% CI −25 to −06, p=0.001), ferritin (507 μg/L vs 344 μg/L 95% CI −307 to −19, p=00002), and total body iron. The effect of delayed clamping was significantly greater for infants born to mothers with low ferritin at delivery, breastfed infants not receiving iron-fortified milk or formula, and infants born with birthweight between 2500 g and 3000 g. A cord clamping delay of 2 minutes increased 6-month iron stores by about 2747 mg.

Interpretation

Delay in cord clamping of 2 minutes could help prevent iron deficiency from developing before 6 months of age, when iron-fortified complementary foods could be introduced.